Water Sensitive Urban Design: Storm Water Management Practices as an Opportunity | Original Article
Rapid urbanization, exhausted resources, imbalance in urban hydrological cycle, great pressure on ecological functions, unhygienic and unhealthy environment is the outline in almost all Indian cities. Tremendous pressure on land caused by increasing urban population has led to a significant increase in impermeable and paved surfaces which has reduced the infiltration rate. Under natural climatic parameters, water acts as a complete cycle of precipitation, evaporation, surface water runoff and infiltration. However, in cities this cycle is disrupted. Urban water is polluted and unable to percolate into the ground due to its paved surfaces, which results in rapid collection and drainage into public sewers which do not get the time to evaporate. Ultimately, it has negative effects on groundwater recharge. Mismanagement of surface water and urban runoff results in flooding, erosion, and water problems. All these issues clearly indicate the need for efficient solutions for urban stormwater management. This research aims to identify strategies that can potentially integrate water cycle loop, water supply, groundwater and storm water with effective spatial design considerations that are watersensitive in nature through a literature review. The research recommends techniques at urban design level and then individual design level towards building water-sensitive sustainable cities in consideration with the Sustainable Development Goals 2030, that covers clean water, sanitation and sustainable cities, as well as community involvement, as significant priorities.