Study on Basic Biomolecules With Special Reference to Their Role In Living System |
Biomolecules are not limited to, proteins, carbohydrates,nucleic acids, and lipids. These molecules are the basic building blocks oflife and by controlling, creating, and manipulating their form and functionthere are many new avenues and advantages available to society. Sinceevery biomolecule is different, there are a number oftechniques used to manipulate each one respectively. Proteins arepolymers that are made up of amino acid chainslinked with peptide bonds. They have four distinct levels ofstructure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Carbohydrates areanother important biomolecule. These are polymers, called polysaccharides,which are made up of chains of simple sugars connected via glycosidicbonds. These monosaccharides consist of a five to six carbonring that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - typically in a 1:2:1 ratio,respectively. Nucleic acids are marcomolecules that consist ofDNA and RNA which are biopolymers consisting of chains of biomolecules. Thesetwo molecules are the genetic code and template that make life possible.Manipulation of these molecules and structures causes major changes in functionand expression of other macromolecules. Nucleosides areglycosylamines containing a nucleobase bound to either ribose or deoxyribosesugar via a beta-glycosidic linkage. Common fatty acids include lauric acid, stearicacid, and oleic acid. The study and engineering of lipidstypically focuses on the manipulation of lipid membranes and encapsulation.Cellular membranes and other biological membranes typically consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane, or aderivative thereof.