An Analysis on Concept and Strategies of Production of Antibiotic |
Antibiotics are substances are obtained from bacteria andfungi. Antibiotics are used for many different purposes. The most important ofthese uses is as drugs to fight various diseases caused by harmfulmicroorganisms. Use of antibiotics has now made it possible to treat manydiseases that were fatal prior to development of antibiotics. A few are used totreat certain cancers. Antibiotics cure diseases by their property of beingselectively toxic to microorganisms. When administered to a patient, theydamage certain types of cells in the patient's body, but do not damage others.Antibiotics used as medicines are harmful to the cells of disease-causingmicroorganisms. Such antibiotics are used to treat a variety of bacterialdiseases. A small number of antibiotics have also been developed to attack humancells for treatment of cancer. They are able to cure cancer by only damagingcells that are in the process of dividing. In common usage, an antibiotic is a substance or compound that kills or inhibits thegrowth of bacteria.Antibiotics belong to the group of antimicrobialcompounds, i.e., those for treating infections caused by microorganisms,including viruses,fungi, andprotozoa. The term "antibiotic" was coined by SelmanWaksman in 1942 to describe any substance produced by a micro-organismthat is antagonistic to the growth of other micro-organisms in high dilution. This original definition excluded naturally occurringsubstances, such as gastric juice and hydrogenperoxide (they kill bacteria but are not produced by micro-organisms), andalso excluded synthetic compounds such as the sulfonamides.