A Study on Nucleus and Its Properties |
Size of a nucleus is in order of 10-15 ÷ 10-14m. Charge of the nucleus Z is positive and equal to serial number of currentchemical element in Periodic Table of Elements. For example, charge of the nucleus of oxygenatom equal to +8. Nucleus consists of nucleons: protons and neutrons. Proton isnucleus of hydrogen, stable particle. Proton is stable particles and did not change own characteristics intime. Charge of one proton equal to +1. Mass of one proton equal to 1.673·10-27kg or 1.00782 u (atomic mass unit). 1u is the same as 1/12 of mass 12Catom and equal to 1.661·10-27 kg. Number of protons in nucleus equalto number of electrons in atom. Neutron is neutral particle. Neutron isunstable particle when outside of nucleus, it decay to proton, electron andantineutrino. Average life-time approximately equal 15 min. Inside stablenucleus, neutron is stable particle. Charge equal to 0 (uncharged). Mass of oneneutron approximately equal to mass of one proton: 1.675·10-27 kg or1.00786 u. Proton and neutron ischaracterized by spin – internal moment. Charge of nucleus equal to number of protons in nucleus. Number ofprotons and neutrons in nucleus called atomic mass number A.