An Analysis Upon Various Techniques and Applications of High-Throughput Dna Sequencing |
Recent advances in DNA sequencing have revolutionized the field ofgenomics, making it possible for even single research groups to generate largeamounts of sequence data very rapidly and at a substantially lower cost. Thesehighthroughput sequencing technologies make deep transcriptome sequencing andtranscript quantification, whole genome sequencing and resequencing availableto many more researchers and projects. The recent progresses of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologiesenable easy and cost-reduced access to whole genome sequencing (WGS) orre-sequencing. HTS associated with adapted, automatic and fast bioinformaticssolutions for sequencing applications promises an accurate and timelyidentification and characterization of pathogenic agents. The modern biology has undergone a drastic change with the increasinglyavailable genetic information of many organisms from prokaryotes to humanbeings. This was possible due to the invention of novel DNA sequencingtechnologies called high through-put sequencing techniques (HTS technologies),which are capable of sequencing the genetic information with increased speed,accuracy and efficiency at a lower cost. Development of these technologies hasrevolutionized the traditional Sanger sequencing method and has almost made thesequencing a bench-top instrument. HTS technologies are also used in solvingthe genome complications, for studying the diversity and genetic variations.These technologies are believed to be useful in novel medical diagnostics and treatment.This review will focus on using different HTS technologies for solving thecomplexities in the genomes of fossil, prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Standardization of DNA extraction is a fundamental issue of fidelity andcomparability in investigations of environmental microbial communities.Commercial kits for soil or feces are often adopted for studies of activatedsludge because of a lack of specific kits, but they have never been evaluatedregarding their effectiveness and potential biases based on high throughputsequencing.