An Analysis on Physico-Chemical Characterization of Distillery Industrial Effluents | Original Article
Effluent originating from distilleries known as spent wash leads to extensive water pollution. A study was conducted to know the quality of effluent generated from the distillery, for the purpose of proper treatment and dilution of effluent before discharge in water stream or on land. Physico-chemical characteristics of distillery effluent samples such as colour, odour, Total Solids, Total dissolved solids, Total Suspended Solids, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Alkalinity, Chloride, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Ammonical Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, and Total Potassium were analyzed and it was observed that the characteristics of spent wash and PTDE (primary treated distillery effluent) have high load of chemical and organic pollutants. But when PTDE was diluted with 50% and 75% of water, all the values of physicochemical properties were decreased. The decrease in these values show that the toxicity of distillery effluent decreases with increasing dilution. Thus the characteristics of spent wash and PTDE do not allow its discharge into a water body; hence it requires treatment and dilution before discharge. Effluents released from distillery industries are known for the damage they cause to the natural ecosystem if proper pretreatment procedure is not performed. A study is required to assess the physicochemical property of the effluent such as colour, odour, total dissolved solid (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), electrical conductivity, and heavy metals which are considered as the mostly reported parameters to indicate the level of pollution from industrial effluents. The present study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristic of one of the distillery effluent found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In our investigation lower pH, higher temperature, higher concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) have been recorded. Effluent originating from distilleries known as spent wash leads to extensive water pollution. Knowledge on the physico-chemical characteristics of distillery wastewater is essential in the design, operation, collection and treatment as well as disposal facilities for the effective management of environmental quality.