Friction Stir Welding: A Review | Original Article
This paper gives a brief overview about the friction stir welding (FSW) as an advanced welding process. FSW is a solid state welding process has different advantages over conventional welding such as no fumes, spattering and distortion which gives strong weld strength. In FSW pieces are clamped together by suitable clamping system or fixtures. It uses a non-consumable tool which is plunged in a workpiece causes a frictional heat which produces a welded joint. Generally heat produced in a weld is 2/3rd of melting point of base metal. Weld is produced without significant melting hence free of solidification defects, cracking and low distortion problem. Also there is no need to use protective gases like conventional welding. Tool material selection and design predominantly affects performance of a tool. Tool geometry also affects the material flow hence there is need to improve properties of weld by selecting proper tool geometry of a tool. Due to the temperature distribution base material undergoes different microstructural behaviour as unaffected parent zone, heat affected zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone and weld nugget zone. Different weld zones show different mechanical properties.