A Detailed Review on Security and Energy- Efficiency of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks | Original Article
The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has got much importance these days. With the tracking and monitoring activities become essential, the deployment of sensor networks through wireless medium have also increased. Although sensors are unavoidable in many fields, they got many issues pertaining to energy, routing, security, coverage, delay, architecture etc. There are many on- going researches in the field of wireless sensor networks. The enhancement of lifetime of sensors has become an important area of research. The fact that a sensor being a micro electronic device, equipped with limited power source. The power source supplies energy needed by the device for processing. If the nodes are deployed far apart, recharging and replacing are tedious process. Apart from hardware issues, the utilization of energy also plays a vital role. The energy go waste in many cases that includes, idle listening, retransmitting, overhearing, over-emitting. To accumulated information in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) large number of inexpensive, lightweight sensors can be arbitrarily spread in harsh and open environment. Hostile conditions as well as low battery life span of battery-operated sensors, need research and development of reliable, secure and energy-efficient sensor network protocols. Out of broad range of network protocols that is routing, is most crucial in terms of utilization of energy, as information interchange consumes 70 of entire energy in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Due to which, so as to conserve energy and improve network's lifetime routing systems with energy efficiency must be developed. But, application-specific nature, lack of a global solution scheme and resource-limited sensors of WSNs proposes a critical challenges for implementing routing of information. Moreover, privacy and security is another critical issues in WSNs, as sensors has to be typically placed in least secured environment and prone to security attacks and phishing. To cater security objectives various currently existing routing protocols have many security measures present in systems. Different energy efficient and secure routing protocols in wireless sensor networks is showcased by us in brief review, focussing on underlying operations and principles.